J. Pokluda et alii, Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, 34 (2015) 142-149; DOI: 10.3221/IGF-ESIS.34.15 145 from the left to the right and the topological profiles were determined by the vertical coordinate z . These profiles were used for a measurement of angles corresponding to the average crack deviation from the plane of the maximum shear stress. The profiles running parallel to the shear direction provide angles α of crack deflection, while those of the perpendicular direction indicate angles β of the crack twisting. Figs. 2 – 5 show fracture surfaces with profiles running along the coordinate l defined by the white arrow in figures. This coordinate and the white arrows are parallel to the applied shear direction in all figures. The height is given by the coordinate z , which also corresponds to the colour codes. One can compare the morphologies with those for ARMCO iron, titanium, nickel and stainless steel published in [1 – 3]. Tab. 1 summarizes the measured and calculated data for all materials tested up to now. The first two columns show mean values and standard deviations of measured angles between a deflected or twisted crack and the original crack plane. Angles close to 70° for mode II and close to 45° for mode III indicate local mode I propagation. The third column shows values of intrinsic thresholds calculated according to Eq. (1) for materials with predominant mode II local loading (lower deflection and twist angles) and according to Eq. (2) for those exhibiting almost pure local mode I crack growth. Experimentally measured mode II and mode III effective thresholds are presented in the last two columns. Figure 1 : Microstructure of the investigated ferritic-pearlitic steel (a) and pearlitc steel (b) . D ISCUSSION he fully pearlitic steel showed a very different behaviour of modes II and III cracks than in the ARMCO iron. Both the deflection angle and the mode II threshold were much higher and comparable to the austenitic steel (see Tab. 1). In pearlite, the cementite lamellae represent a strong barrier for dislocations. Therefore, the deformation mechanism is limited to the small volume of ferrite between the lamellae (in the near-threshold regime). The barriers have to be bypassed, which may cause a kink of the crack with high angles. In pearlite, areas of micro-cleavage at ferrite- cementite interfaces and crack cutting across cementite lamellae were observed for mode I fatigue crack growth [6, 7]. It is expected that a similar mechanism takes place also in the case of cracks loaded by modes II and III. The above mentioned mechanisms explain the observed high deflections of the remote mode II cracks towards a nearly pure opening mode I in this material. Although the ferritic-pearlitic steel contained approximately the same portion of ferrite and pearlite, the deflection angle was only slightly smaller than that in the fully pearlitic steel and the value of the effective mode II threshold was fully comparable. This indicates that after the local mode I growth is triggered in the pearlitic grain, the crack propagation continues with a large component of mode I also in the rest of the material. Thus, the presence of the pearlitic phase makes a relatively big difference in nature of the shear-mode fatigue crack growth when compared with that of pure ferrite. In all the stainless, ferritic-pearlitic and pearlitic steels the crack immediately deflects to the opening mode I. Therefore, Eq. (2) should be used for prediction of their mode II threshold values. In the ferritic-pearlitic and pearlitic steels, the reason for such behaviour is the presence of the secondary-phase particles (cementite lamellas). In the austenitic steel, on the other hand, the fcc structure and the low stacking fault energy are the main factors. T (a) (b)