Issue 39

J. Flodr et alii, Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, 39 (2017) 62-71; DOI: 10.3221/IGF-ESIS.39.08 64 E XPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENT OF SAMPLES AND NUMERICAL EVALUATION esting of material properties of steel is a wide area. Verified procedures are still being developed, especially effect of temperature and special conditions of testing [14-16]. 6 tensile tests of steel samples (S235) were made during physical experiments. Loads and longitudinal deformations were evaluated during tests. Longitudinal deformations were measured by move of a head of a press. Tests were done according to procedures [17] and [18] and on standardized samples. Typical sample of steel after the test is shown in the Fig. 2. Tensile working diagram from 6 laboratory tests is shown as a solid line in the Fig. 3. Final numerical result is shown as a dashed line. All samples were loaded until they broke. The average strength steel f u from test is 409.8Mpa. The standard deviation of static file is 2.3 MPa. In [19] and [20] are desribed in detail information about testing of material properties. Articles also includes the results of a large number of tests. Results of the tensile tests and the results from published works for steel S235 are similar also. Strength of the steel from the tensile tests f u and published results are slightly lower compared with the published results. Steel meets declared value of producer. Figure 3 : Tensile working diagrams of steel – laboratory test. Performed tensile tests were modelled in ANSYS 16 [21] afterwards. 20-nodes finite element SOLID186 was used for nonlinear numerical model capable of collaps state evaluation as indicated on Fig. 3. Mesh of finite elements of a sample is in the Fig. 4. Three sizes of finite elements were made to proof influence on results. Sizes were from 0.75 to 3.00mm. It was found out that size of elements does not have influence on results. The size of 1.50mm was chosen as a optimum variant. In numerical model are 7300 finite elements and 40510 nodes. Method Newton-Raphson was used for solution of nonlinear equations of system. CP algorithm was used for boundary conditions in the fixing of the press. Afterwards the load was brought to the sample by displacement of one main node. Size of load step was varied in the interval from 1/2000 to 1/80 of the prescribed deformation. The total prescribed deformation is 35 mm. Slip of the press was simulated by changing the stiffness of working diagram. Multilinear working diagram was chosen to create numerical model. The multilinear working diagram corresponds with working diagram of structural steel taken from [11]. The used material diagram was gradually modified to correspond to shape of behaviour of real sample during tensile test. Final shape of multilinear material diagram in the Fig. 5 was acquired by iteration. While using multilinear material diagram physical experiment results corresponded to numerical analysis. Elastic material diagram with linear hardening is possible to derive from multilinear material diagram. T