Issue 35

A. Mehmanparast et alii, Frattura ed Integrità Strutturale, 35 (2016) 125-131; DOI: 10.3221/IGF-ESIS.35.15 126 both in air and seawater. The specimen orientation for these tests was chosen in such a way to allow crack growth occurring in through-thickness (i.e. Y axis in Fig. 1) direction with the load applied along transverse (i.e. X axis in Fig. 1) direction. The preliminary results from these tests have shown “bi-linear” da/dN vs. ΔK fatigue crack growth behavior [3] which is thought to be due to the tensile-compressive residual stress profiles introduced into the material during the welding process [4]. Neutron Diffraction (ND) measurements are therefore needed to be performed on weldments to provide accurate interpretation of the fatigue crack growth results. Large 355D plates with 90 mm thickness, from which C(T) specimens have been extracted, were welded using multi-pass double V-groove butt welding. The plates were pre- heated at 50-225°C and no post weld heat treatment was conducted. The parent plates were pre-strained through rolling and then welded, with the weld beads parallel to the rolling direction (i.e. along Z axis in Fig. 1). In this paper the experimental and numerical results available in the open literature have been reviewed to investigate the influence of welding sequence on residual stress fields for different engineering materials. The findings have been discussed in terms of the influence of multi-pass welding sequence on tensile-compressive residual stress fields and considered to investigate the preferred welding sequences for offshore wind turbine monopile structures. X Y Z Figure 1 : 90mm 355D steel weldment typical of an offshore wind monopile structure M ULTI - PASS WELDING EFFECTS ON RESIDUAL STRESS FIELDS Single V-Groove Welded Plates he experimental and numerical residual stress data available from studies carried out on single V-groove welded plates have been reviewed in this section. Experimental Neutron strain scanning measurements were performed by James MN et al [5] on RQT701 high strength steel welded plates manufactured using three different types of filler metals; under-matched, matched and over-matched. Two heat input values and plate thicknesses were used in multi- pass weld runs examined in this work (see Fig. 2). It has been shown in [5] that the heat input, filler metal yield strength, plate thickness and fusion zone shape influence the position and magnitude of the tensile and compressive residual stress peaks. An example of a welded plate examined in this work is shown Fig. 3. Also included in this figure are the indicative directions of residual stress components. The Neutron diffraction results plotted against “distance from centre of the weld” in [5] have shown that the Z-component (i.e. parallel to weld beads) of stress profile is tensile in the weld metal and HAZ material whereas the X-component (i.e. transverse) and Y-component (i.e. through-thickness) of stress profiles have been found to change from tensile to compressive and the measured values to vary as a function of the depth into the plate thickness (a function of Y coordinate). The residual strain measurement results plotted against “distance from center of the weld” in [5] show that the X-component (i.e. transverse) of micro-strain profile is strongly tensile in over-matched welded plates, however in those plates welded with under-matched filler metal both tensile and compressive transverse micro-strains have been found to have magnitudes of much lower than the tensile peaks observed in over-matched welded plates. Further shown in [5] is that the position of the tensile peak falls upon the region where the maximum weld T